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Testimonial

The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensible in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University

disconfirmation

How a customer believes an actual experience compares to what he/she expected it to be is measured with five, seven-point semantic differentials.

A three-item, seven-point scale is used to measure the level of disconfirmation in beliefs a consumer has toward a particular camera. Disconfirmation refers to the results of the comparison made between expected product performance and actual performance.

Ten, nine-point items are used to measure the degree of disconfirmation a person experiences in his/her expectations regarding some music.

The scale measures expectancy-disconfirmation of a movie performance using eight items and a nine-point response format.

The scale attempts to measure a consumer's tendency to experience greater satisfaction (dissatisfaction) than the average consumer when products perform better (worse) than expected.

Three, ten-point semantic differentials are used to measure the level of general satisfaction a customer has with a certain service provider. The scale appears to combine aspects of disconfirmation with a comparison to the "ideal" provider.

The scale has been used to measure the degree to which a consumer's expectations regarding a decision are not met. The three-item version has been used most (Oliver 1993; Oliver and Swan 1989a, 1989b; Wallace, Giese, and Johnson 2004, Westbrook 1987), but a two-item, seven-point version has been used as well (Oliver 1980).

In its fullest form, the scale is composed of twelve Likert-type items and measures a consumer's degree of satisfaction with a product he/she has recently purchased. Most of its uses have been in reference to the purchase of cars but Mano and Oliver (1993) appear to have adapted it so as to be general enough to apply to whatever product a respondent was thinking about. Mattila and Wirtz (2001) adapted a short version of the scale to measure customers’ satisfaction with a shopping experience. Seven of the items were modified by Hausman (2004) for use with the patient-physician encounter.

A four-item, five-point scale is used to measure the degree to which a consumer's expectations regarding a museum and its services have been met.

A three-item, six-point Likert-type summated ratings scale is used to measure the likelihood that a consumer would express his or her dissatisfaction after a purchase to parties not involved in the exchange, such as friends and relatives, so those parties will not use that service again.