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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam


The scale has three, seven-point semantic differentials that measure how large a consumer considers a particular discount on a product’s normal price to be.

A consumer’s level of attitudinal, affective, and behavioral involvement with getting discounts and buying products on sale is measured with seven, five-point Likert-type items.

The degree to which a customer is pleased with the reduction in price that he/she was able to negotiate during a recent purchase is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

The scale measures the degree to which a consumer experiences conflict with regard to purchasing a discounted product linked with a charity.  The conflict is between personally benefitting by saving money and doing something purely to help the charity.  Three, eleven-point Likert-type items compose the scale.

This scale uses four, seven-point Likert-type items to measure how easily a shopper is able to use the necessary math to compute a discount offered by a retailer.  The scale makes sense to use when a discount is not explicit but rather must be calculated by the consumer by using the information provided, e.g., regular price and sale price.

With three, seven-point Likert-type items, this scale measures a consumer's belief that products purchased at a certain store are cheaper than found at other stores, particularly for those products that are advertised.

Three statements are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a person believes that he/she should receive a certain discount that is part of some promotion.

This scale uses three, seven-point items to measure a consumer's belief that a store employee has reward power such that the consumer will be given a reward (discount) for buying a product.

A three-item, seven-point scale is used to measure a person's perception of the magnitude of the savings indicated in an ad for a category of products that are on sale.

Seven, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that an advertisement contains price information that is not correct and, in fact, the retailer is intentionally trying to deceive consumers.