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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

dissonance

Five, eleven-point items are used to measure how much a person felt a sense of “going against the flow” by doing something different and experiencing resistance against someone or something in a particular situation.  

Three Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person would make a different choice if possible given an outcome that has occurred to a decision he/she made.

Using three, seven-point items, the scale measures how much a person feels undecided and doubtful about something he/she has done such as choice that was made.

The degree to which a person felt bad at a point in time, with an emphasis on guilt, is measured with three, nine-point uni-polar items.

How ashamed and worthy of blame a person felt at some point in time is measured in the scale with five, seven-point uni-polar items.

Using six, seven-point uni-polar items, the scale measures the extent to which a person reports feeling attacked verbally in the sense of his/her image being maligned.

Five unipolar items are used to measure one's feeling of frustration and betrayal.  The scale seems to be flexible for use in a variety of contexts.

The degree to which a person believes a company claims to be something that it is not is measured in this scale using six, seven-point Likert-type items.  Although the scale was developed for use with a business, the items seem to be amenable for us with other entities such as government or non-profit organizations.

This scale uses three, seven point items to measure how much happiness a consumer believes a particular purchase has brought to his/her life.  The implication is that this scale is intended to measure something different from product satisfaction.

A person's negative emotional concern and uneasiness about something is measured in this scale with three uni-polar items.