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Testimonial

I have relied on the Marketing Scales Handbooks over several years in academic and industry roles and look forward to using the newest edition. A seven on a seven-point satisfaction scale!
Tom Prinsen, Ph.D.
Global Manager Market Intelligence, Biomet Orthope

drink

The three-item, seven-point semantic-differential is intended to assess the ease with which a stimulus has evoked visual images. The scale was used as a manipulation check in an experiment by Shiv and Fedorikhin (1999) with two snacks (chocolate cake and fruit salad) to see if the presentation mode of the snacks (real versus photographs) made a difference in the ease with which subjects could see themselves eating the snack. The scale was referred to as vividness by Shiv and Fedorikhin (1999).

The set of items in this scale appear to be most suited for evaluating a food or beverage presented within the context of an advertisement. The scale was used in a couple of slightly different forms. One was composed of ten, seven-point semantic differentials measuring a consumer's evaluation of a brand. Another had seven items and a nine-point scale to measure attitudes towards a product category. In both cases, Arias-Bolzmann, Chakraborty, and Mowen (2000) used it with respect to a print ad created for a fictitious wine cooler.

The scale is a six item, seven-point measure of one´s attitude toward a specific brand of beer.

Five, seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure the likelihood that a food product has certain characteristics. The characteristics focus on taste, healthiness, and freshness. The scale can be used before or after a person has tasted the product. If used as a pre-taste measure then the respondent must imagine what it would taste like on the basis of the stimuli provided (verbal descriptions, graphics, etc.). The measure was referred to as feature judgments by Meyers-Levy and Tybout (1997).

Seven, seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure the degree to which a person expresses a positive opinion of a beverage. The scale can be used before or after a person has tasted the product. If used before drinking a beverage, then the respondent must imagine what it would taste like on the basis of the stimuli provided (verbal descriptions, graphics, brand name, ad, etc.).

A seven-item, nine-point scale is used in measuring the degree to which a person likes consuming soft drinks.

This three-item, nine-point scale is used to measure the degree to which a person believes consuming soft drinks is acceptable to friends and family. It was referred to by Beatty and Kahle (1988) as subjective norm.

This is a three-item, nine-point Likert-type scale measuring the degree to which a person expresses loyalty to a specific brand of some product. The product used by Beatty and Kahle (1988) was a soft drink and they referred to the scale as brand commitment.

This is a six-item, five-point Likert-type scale measuring the degree to which a consumer considers several store-related convenience features to be important.