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duty

Using three, seven-point items, the scale measures the extent to which a person has a sense of responsibility for helping a group of which he/she is a member perform an activity or achieve a goal.  

The scale has five, five-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a person believes a service provider is owed patronage because of the special treatment received from the business in the past. The scale was called social capital by Tokman, Davis, and Lemon (2007). The name is changed here to focus on the most obvious facet of social capital being measured (indebtedness).

The scale is composed of Likert-type items measuring the extent to which a person believes it is appropriate for consumers to complain when they experience a dissatisfying transaction.

Three, seven-point Likert-type items are used to assess the extent to which a shopper enjoys shopping for others.

Four, nine-point statements are used to measure the value placed by a person on self-restraint and self-transcendence in order to minimize social disruption.

The scale is composed of four statements intended to measure a person´s general attitude about how people in society should feel and act towards those in need. It is not specific to any particular charity or type of needy persons. Further, the scale does not directly assess what the respondent is actually doing to help but rather what he or she thinks people in general should do.

Five items are used to measure a person's general attitude about charities including how they use money and the role they play in society. The scale is not specific to any particular charity nor does it directly assess the respondent's level of support.