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Testimonial

This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin

emotions

The scale has three seven-point items in a semantic differential format and is intended to capture the state (as opposed to trait) of anxiety a person is feeling a some point in time.

Five one-word positive descriptors are used to measure a person's affective reaction to a stimulus. These descriptors suggest strong intensity and, as such, appear to represent emotions rather than less-intense sentiments.

Three, uni-polar items are used to measure the degree to which a person has experienced positive feelings as a result of being exposed to some stimulus.

A multi-item, semantic differential ratings scale measuring the degree to which a person likes some musical stimulus and perceives it to be "good." Lord, Lee, and Sauer (1995) as well as Obermiller (1985) used three-item subsets of this scale.

Fifteen five-point descriptors are used to measure a person's overall negative emotional reaction to some stimulus. The scale is a combination of three subdimensions: anger, fear, and discouragement. A five-item, seven-point scale very similar to the anger subdimension was used by Nyer (1997).

Four, seven-point, bi-polar adjectives are used in measuring the degree to which one likes some stimulus and perceives it to be ''good.'' Leigh (1984) used these items and four more of his own in a modified Likert-like format.

Six, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a person is concerned about his or her weight.

A three-item, seven-point semantic differential scale is used to measure the degree of emotion-like quality perceived to be expressed by a certain stimulus.

A three-item, seven-point semantic differential scale is used in measuring the degree to which a purchase decision is influenced by one's feelings versus one's cognitive thinking.

Six, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure a consumer's tendency to express and/or exhibit hostility toward a marketer, especially salespeople. An 11-item version of the scale translated into Dutch was used by Richins (1987).