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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam


The extent to which a consumer believes that a brand was part of an experience that he/she had is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.  The items connote an anthropomorphic view of the brand.

With two- and three-item versions, the scale measures a person’s belief that donating money to charities has a positive effect on one’s happiness.

Rather than focusing on guilt-related feelings, this scale uses four items to measure a person's cognitive appraisal of his/her failure to donate responsibly.

How much compassion a person feels for others is measured with seven-point unipolar items.  With the proper instructions, this version seems to be adaptable for use in a wide variety of situations.  Versions with five, six, and seven items are described.

Four, seven-point semantic differentials are used in this scale to measure the level of fear that has been evoked by some stimulus.

Four, five-point unipolar items are used in this scale to measure one’s feelings of shame and remorse.

Four items with a seven-point response format are used to measure how much a person has been burdened by something that has happened to the point that it depletes his/her ability to deal with it.

Three, nine-point items measure the degree to which a person believes a particular experience was more than just enjoyable for the moment; it is viewed as having a larger impact on his/her life in terms of meaningfulness and fulfillment.

The degree to which a certain man is viewed as being in love with a certain woman is measured using three, seven-point items.  (The items appear to be easily adaptable for use with other interpersonal relationships as discussed further below.)

One's lack of close relationships with family members and a romantic partner from whom support and encouragement can be received is measured with ten, seven-point Likert-type items.