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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


The scale is a eleven-item, five-point Likert-type measure of the degree to which a consumer views a recent shopping trip as having been an entertaining and emotionally-driven activity. The shopping was enjoyed as an end in itself rather than as just a means to an end (obtaining goods and services). A seven-item, Russian version of the scale was developed by Griffin, Babin, and Modianos (2000).  Arnold and Reynolds (2009) used a five item subset of the scale.

This scale uses three, six-point Likert-type items to measure the degree to which a person expresses enjoyment with regard to a particular activity.

Three, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a person's intention to not only go to a store again in the future but to look forward to it.

The degree to which a customer of a business expresses comfort and enjoyment interacting with a particular employee is measured using this three item, five-point Likert-type scale.

The scale measures the degree to which a customer believes the relationship he/she has with an employee is warm and pleasant.  A four- and a six-item version are described.

The scale uses eight short phrases to measure the extent to which a person believes that use of a product will have consequences that are good and enjoyable.

This four-item, six-point Likert-type scale is supposed to measure the degree to which a person views a specified activity or experience as being novel and arousing curiosity. This scale was called arousal by Unger (1981; Unger and Kernan 1983) and the activity investigated was subjective leisure. In the study by Guiry, Mägi, and Lutz (2006) the activity was recreational shopping.


The scale is composed of seven point, semantic differential items measuring a person's beliefs concerning the perceived enjoyment that would be experienced with regard to a specified stimulus. As described below, the stimuli compared by Dabholkar (1994) were two methods of ordering at a fast-food restaurant: touch screen versus verbally placing the order with an employee.

The scale has three ten-point items that are used to measure the level of pleasure a person anticipates having with respect to some future experience.

The scale is composed of six, nine-point Likert-type items that measure the degree of pleasure a person reports feeling during a recent experience which heavily involved the person's creativity.