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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


This nine-point, four item scale is intended to measure the degree of variety a consumer perceives there to be in an assortment of some product and the enjoyment derived from having access to that variety.

The scale is composed of four, seven-point Likert-type statements that measure a consumer's thoughts about the degree to which he/she is a smart shopper and considers that to be a positive behavior. Burton et al. (1998) referred to the scale as smart shopper self-perception.

Four, ten-point items are used to measure the degree to which a consumer expresses little if any interest in retail shopping with respect to some product category.

Six, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a consumer holds a positive attitude about shopping such that it is enjoyable and worth the time and effort.

The scale uses semantic differentials to measure a consumer's degree of satisfaction with some stimulus. The scale has been used with regard to: insurance agents, service policies, insurance agencies (Crosby and Stephens 1987); shopping (Eroglu and Machleit 1990); a retail store and an airline (Nijssen et al. 2003; Sirdeshmukh, Singh, and Sabol 2002); and, a camcorder (Spreng, MacKenzie, and Olshavsky 1996).

This semantic differential scale measures a consumer's degree of satisfaction with something specific rather than his/her overall level of contentment in life. The scale may be most suited for measuring a consumer's satisfaction with another party with whom a transaction has occurred or with whom a relationship has developed.

The scale has been used to study salespeople (Oliver and Swan 1989a; Reynolds and Beatty 1999a, 1999b), hairstylists (Price and Arnould 1999; Bansal, Taylor, and James 2005), banks (Jones, Mothersbaugh, and Beatty 2000), and auto repair facilities (Bansal, Irving, and Taylor 2004; Bansal, Taylor, and James 2005; Thomas, Vitell, Gilbert, and Rose 2002).

The scale assesses the degree to which a person believes that the number and quality of a person's possessions are necessary to achieve happiness in life. The original version of the scale was composed of five, five-point Likert-type statements. Alternative versions of the scale, varying in their length, were subsequently developed and tested by Richins (2004).

The scale has four, seven-point Likert-type statements that are intended to measure the extent to which a person likes a certain company along with its features, services, and offerings. The scale was called affective loyalty by Harris and Goode (2004) and was used with respect to online stores but it appears to be amenable for use with a variety of vendors.

Eight, seven-point Likert-type items measure a consumer's enjoyment of sales promotion deals and tendency to buy products associated with such offers. This measures a general tendency rather than the likelihood that the behavior occurs for any particular product category. Burton et al. (1998) and Lichtenstein, Netemeyer, and Burton (1995) referred the scale as general deal proneness while Garretson, Fisher, and Burton (2002) called it national brand promotion attitude.

Three Likert-type statements are used to measure the extent that a consumer expresses pleasure in buying and owning a brand. The scale was labeled as the Hedonic dimension of the CIP (see Origin below) by Voss, Spangenberg, and Grohmann (2003).