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Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam

environmentalism

The frequency with which a person engages in behaviors that can be interpreted as helping to preserve the environment are measured with four, five-point items.

A six-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person who has just experienced an outdoor adventure describes it as an escape from his/her previous ''world'' for a time.

The scale is composed of eight, six-point Likert-type items that are intended to measure a consumer lifestyle trait characterized by the tendency to be both restrained in acquiring products as well as resourceful in using them.

The four items composing this scale are intended to measure the extent to which a customer believes that a particular company is responsible in its service to society and the environment.

Five, seven-point items are used in this scale to measure a consumer's belief that a company is likely to be responsible and/or successful in a variety of ways such as employee welfare, environmental policies, and profitability. Biehal and Sheinin (2007) referred to the scale as corporate-derived beliefs.

Four, nine-point statements are used to measure a person's view of what other people he/she is familiar with think about recycling. The scale is amenable for specifying the type of people being described, e.g., students.

Sixteen, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure a person's attitude about a wide range of ecological issues with an emphasis on conservation and pollution. The developers of the scale referred to it as Environmental Concern (Weigel and Weigel 1978).

The scale is composed of twelve Likert-type items and is purported to measure one's world view as it pertains to the environment and man's relationship to it. Response to most of the items appears to hinge on whether humans should adapt to the environment or rather that it is appropriate to use the environment as mankind desires. The scale was referred to as the New Environmental Paradigm by its creators (Dunlap and Van Liere 1978) because this view was seen as contrasting with the more dominant paradigm of the time that was not particularly pro-environment.

Seven, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the extent to which a consumer believes that some specified organization can be trusted in the activities in which it engages to help protect the environment. The source in the study by Osterhus (1997) was a utility company.

A person's concern for the environment and willingness to work toward its protection are measured in this scale using four Likert-type items.