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Testimonial

As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings

ethnicity

The extent to which a person is interested in and feels attached to a particular subculture is measured with six, five-point Likert-type items.

A person's belief that an advertiser created a particular ad and aimed it at people like him/her is measured with three items.

The degree to which a consumer actively rejects the perceived domestic consumer culture and distances him/herself from it is measured in the scale using six, seven-point Likert-type items.

Five, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a citizen of a country does not identify with the majority nationality group and, instead, accepts an oppositional identity.

A person's opinion regarding the mixture of Spanish and English in conversation is measured in this scale using nine, seven-point Likert-type items.

A ten-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree of subtly degrading and derogatory opinions held by a person toward blacks in general. The items suggest that blacks are socially, morally, and/or educationally backward.

Seven, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a person processes an advertisement, particularly the model featured in the ad, such that it is related to one's self-concept. The emphasis of the construct is on the way the ad is processed rather than on self-concept itself.

The scale has been used to measure a consumer's perceived homogeneity with an actor or model in an advertisement. Visual similarity is just part of the comparison. Whittler (1991; and Dimeo 1991) used a four-item, fifteen-point version of the scale whereas Appiah (2001) used a five-item, seven-point version.

The three-item, seven-point scale attempts to measure the significance of one's racial status in his/her life.

This five-point, twelve-item scale is meant to assess how well a person can use a certain language in various situations.