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Bob Moritz
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation

ethnicity

The extent to which a person is interested in and feels attached to a particular subculture is measured with six, five-point Likert-type items.

A person's belief that an advertiser created a particular ad and aimed it at people like him/her is measured with three items.

The degree to which a consumer actively rejects the perceived domestic consumer culture and distances him/herself from it is measured in the scale using six, seven-point Likert-type items.

Five, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a citizen of a country does not identify with the majority nationality group and, instead, accepts an oppositional identity.

A person's opinion regarding the mixture of Spanish and English in conversation is measured in this scale using nine, seven-point Likert-type items.

A ten-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree of subtly degrading and derogatory opinions held by a person toward blacks in general. The items suggest that blacks are socially, morally, and/or educationally backward.

Seven, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a person processes an advertisement, particularly the model featured in the ad, such that it is related to one's self-concept. The emphasis of the construct is on the way the ad is processed rather than on self-concept itself.

The scale has been used to measure a consumer's perceived homogeneity with an actor or model in an advertisement. Visual similarity is just part of the comparison. Whittler (1991; and Dimeo 1991) used a four-item, fifteen-point version of the scale whereas Appiah (2001) used a five-item, seven-point version.

The three-item, seven-point scale attempts to measure the significance of one's racial status in his/her life.

This five-point, twelve-item scale is meant to assess how well a person can use a certain language in various situations.