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Bob Moritz
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation


A three-item, five-point Likert-type summated ratings scale is used to measure a consumer's evaluation of a brand. The scale is appears to capture one's affect toward a brand and does not attempt to assess cognitions related to particular product characteristics. The scale was referred to as a measure of ''prior brand evaluation'' by Chattopadhyay and Basu (1990).

A 30-item true-false scale is used to measure the extent to which a person expects to be evaluated negatively by others and avoids evaluative situations. A person scoring high on this scale should not necessarily be assumed to have a negative self-image. The measure was referred to as Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) by the originators (Watson and Friend 1969) as well as Bearden and Rose (1990).

The scale is used to measure a person's satisfaction with the process of making a selection from among a set of alternative brands. The scale may be used prior to the consumer's consumption/usage of the product and is intended to be distinct from the type of satisfaction that can be measured after consumption has occurred. The full version of the scale has six items whereas the abbreviated version has three.

The scale is composed of sixteen statements intended to measure the extent to which a person chronically engages in evaluative responding across situations and objects.  People are differentially motivated to engage in evaluation. No biological basis for this "need" is presumed although it is possible. Instead, it is viewed as a "self-attributed motive," a component of the self-concept. A Dutch translation of the scale was used by Fennis and Bakker (2001).

Three, seven-point items are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that another person (specified) has similar "taste" and judgment in evaluating a certain object.

Three, nine-point Likert-type items are used to measure how difficult it was for a person to develop a concept of a particular product that was described with aspects of two other products or brands, e.g., a parent name and a sub-brand name. The scale was called difficulty of concept formation by Jo (2007).

This six-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure how much attention and critical thinking is paid to the brand and its features featured in an advertisement.

The overall level of service excellence a consumer believes to be provided by some specified company is measured with three, seven-point items.

Three, seven-point items are used in this scale to measure a person's attitude regarding the quality of a particular product/brand.

Three, nine-point bi-polar adjectives are used to measure the extent to which a person believes a certain result has been achieved.