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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


How a consumer expects to feel after using a particular product is measured with eight, seven-point uni-polar items.

Composed of four, seven-point Likert-type items, this scale measures a person’s expected embarrassment if a particular group is joined and members become aware of his/her attribute that is stigmatized.    

Because of a personal attribute one has, this three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale measures a person’s expectation that it could be beneficial to share insights with others in a particular context.  The scale may be most relevant if the characteristic is something that is stigmatized, e.g., weight, addiction, criminal activity.    

Composed of nine, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures the degree to which a person believes he/she deserves more than others because of being special and not due to effort or skill.

The importance a person places on instructions and procedures to guide his/her expectations, particularly in a work context, is measured with five, seven-point Likert-type items. 

The scale has six, seven-point unipolar items that measure how much a person believes that referring someone for something in particular (not explicitly stated in the scale) would make him/her feel bad about it.  Because the object of the referral is not stated in the items nor the scale stem, the measure is flexible for use in a variety of contexts. 

Using nine, seven-point unipolar items, the scale measures how much a friend is expected to have a positive reaction upon hearing that a person has recommended him/her for something.  The person filling out the scale is the recommender and is a friend of the one being referred.  What the friend is being recommended for is not stated in the items themselves, which makes the scale useful in a variety of contexts. 

Seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a person’s belief that a particular organization expects something in return from people when it gives something to them (quid pro quo).  Two versions of the scale are described.

With four, seven-point items, the scale measures how much a consumer expects that if he/she does not take advantage of a current sale that it will be a mistake.

Four semantic differentials are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that if he/she hired a particular person for a stated job, the outcome would be good.