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This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin


A three-item, six-point, Likert-like scale is used to measure the likelihood that a consumer would complain to an offending marketer if it was expected that the latter would respond in a positive way. The construct measured by the scale is referred to as value (voice) in Singh (1990a) and worthiness of complaint in Singh (1990b). Three slightly different versions of the scale were used depending on the service category being studied.

The scale is composed of four, nine-point Likert-type statements that measure the degree to which a person who has recently bought a product from a company expects that he/she will be satisfied with the decision.

Four, seven-point items are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a consumer would be motivated to seek a refund from a store if it is learned that a product he/she bought there was cheaper elsewhere. The scale was called willingness to claim refund by Kukar-Kinney and Grewal (2007).

The scale uses three, seven-point Likert-type items to measure the extent to which a consumer eagerly seeks lower than expected prices for products, feels good when they are found, and feels bad when they are not. The scale was called transaction utility by Völckner (2008).

The scale uses eight short phrases to measure the extent to which a person believes that use of a product will have consequences that are good and enjoyable.

The scale measures the degree to which a person has positive expectations for his/her future.  Two versions of the scale are described: one with three, seven-point Likert items and another with five, five-point Likert items.

The scale has four, seven-point semantic differential items that measure a person's expressed willingness to misrepresent the truth in a particular situation.

Four, five-point items are used to measure a person's attitude toward working for a particular company and the likelihood of seeking employment with it in the future.

The scale has four, seven-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a person is fixated on the negative consequences of his/her decisions rather than the positive.

The scale has three ten-point items that are used to measure the level of pleasure a person anticipates having with respect to some future experience.