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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

expectations

The scale has three, five-point items that are supposed to measure the probability that a product will not perform as expected for reasons that could be viewed as "personal." (See Origin below for more details.) If one accepts the two component model of perceived risk (e.g., Bauer 1960; Cox 1967), then this scale most heavily taps into the uncertainty component as opposed to the consequences component.

Three, seven-point statements are used to measure a consumer's attitude regarding the monetary costs a company will incur if it has high prices. In the study by Srivastava and Lurie (2004), the "costs" referred to a price matching guarantee that was described in a scenario that subjects read before completing the scale.

The scale is composed of four, nine-point Likert-type statements that measure the degree to which a person views the purchase of a particular product in the next year to have unspecified negative consequences associated with it.

Three, seven-point semantic differentials are used in the scale to measure the degree to which a customer expresses an intention to shop at a store/website or use a particular company's services again in the indefinite future.

Four, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a customer expects to visit a particular business in the future and continue the relationship indefinitely.

Three, seven-point statements are used to measure a consumer's beliefs regarding the inclination of other customers to want a refund from a store if they find a product they bought there to be cheaper elsewhere.

The scale is composed of three, five-point Likert-type items that measure a person's beliefs regarding the quality of an article of clothing featured in an advertisement.

Three, seven-point items are used to assess the extent to which a consumer believes that the price of a particular product provides an accurate indication of its quality. The scale was called cue reliability by Darke and Chung (2005).

Three items are used to measure a consumer's estimate of a product's price.

Six statements with a seven-point Likert-type response format are used to measure the degree to which a person had a positive view of the future at the time a particular purchase decision was made. By making some slight changes to the scale's intructions, a more general measure of optimism is possible.