You are here

Scale Reviews

Find reliable measures for use in your questionnaires. Search Now


The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


Four, Likert-type statements are used to measure the credibility of an advertiser/company with an emphasis on his/her experience and skill.

Multiple bi-polar adjectives are used to measure a dimension of credibility related to a source's perceived skill and knowledge. The following applications of the scale (or parts of it) have been made: the expertise of a company (Goldsmith, Lafferty and Newell 2001); a website's reputation (Shamdasani, Stanaland, and Tan 2001); expertise of print ad models (Bower and Landreth 2001); and, credibility of celebrity endorsers (Ohanian 1990, 1991; Till and Busler 2000).

This scale uses five, seven-point semantic differentials to measure quality.  The items are general enough to apply a variety of stimuli but may be best suited for describing service providers. 

The importance of certain celebrity attributes if that person is to be hired as an endorser in advertising is measured using five, five-point items. The attributes in this scale have to do with the celebrity's profession and whether or not he/she is a user of the brand. The scale was called profession by Erdogan, Baker, and Tagg (2001).

An aspect of service quality is measured having to do with the extent to which a customer believes a service provider's employees have the requisite knowledge and skill to meet the customers' needs.  The scale has three, seven-point Likert-type statements.

The scale is composed of three, five-point Likert-type statements that assess the degree to which a consumer views him/herself as an opinion leader with regard to shopping in general. This is in contrast to being an opinion leader for one specific product category.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point items measuring the degree to which a consumer considers him/herself to be knowledgeable and experienced compared to others as it regards various types of products within a category.

The scale is composed of five, seven-point items measuring a person's familiarity and experience with a good or service. As used by Roehm and Sternthal (2001), the scale measured knowledge of a particular brand, however, the items seem to be amenable for use with a product class as well.

The seven-point scale is a measure of the relative knowledge a person reports having about cars and their operation compared to the "average" buyer. Srinivasan and Ratchford (1991) and Sambandam and Lord (1995) used a Likert version of the scale whereas Bottomley, Doyle, and Green (2000) used a semantic differential variation.

Ten, seven-point statements are used to assess a consumer's knowledge about and familiarity with automobiles, at least in terms of the information needed to make a purchase decision. The scale was called product experience by Mason et al. (2001).