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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

fairness

With four, nine-point items, the scale measures the extent to which a person believes that one or more employees of a company engaged in improper activity that deceived and harmed clients.  WARNING: The article in which this scale was reported has been retracted by the second author due to anomilies in the data and analyses [Journal of Consumer Research (2020), 47 (4), 632]. The extent to which the anomilies affected this scale is unknown.

The scale uses four, seven-point Likert-type items to measure the degree to which a customer believes a particular company treats him/her unfairly.

The scale uses three semantic differentials to measure how much a customer believes he/she was treated fairly by a business and as deserved.

Three items are used to measure a person's belief that countries which are the recipients of jobs or other functions that have been moved from their original country (outsourced) are unfairly taking advantage of lower labor costs.

A customer's belief that it is the retailer's responsibility that a product had to be returned is measured in this scale using three, seven-point items.

A person's level of satisfaction with the way a company has resolved a problem is assessed with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a person's attitude about the fairness and reasonableness with which a conflict with a company was resolved.

The degree to which a person believes there is a possibility that a certain unjust situation can be remedied is measured using three statements.

These ten, five-point Likert-type items are intended to measure the degree of value a consumer places on the offer extended to him/her by a former service provider in an effort to reacquire his/her business after having defected. The scale was called win-back offer worth (WOW) by Tokman, Davis, and Lemon (2007).

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a customer personally has complained to a business about a problem with the purpose of seeking revenge by inconveniencing it and verbally abusing its employees.