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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

fashion

The three-item, five-point scale measures the degree to which a person feels that engaging in one of two behaviors would be a signal of his/her status and superiority to others.

The degree to which something or someone is viewed as stylish and trendy is measured in this scale with three, nine-point, semantic differentials. 

Using four, seven-point items, this scale measures the extent to which a consumer finds gratification in shopping online because it facilitates learning about and adopting new products, particularly those that are fashion-related.  The scale was referred to as the avant-gardism motivation by Ganesh et al. (2010).

The degree to which a person believes that a brand's products are modern and visually appealing is measured using three, seven-point Likert-type items.

The extent to which a person views an object as being contemporary and stylish is measured in this scale with three, seven-point unipolar terms.

The various versions of this Likert-type scale are used to measure the importance of being in fashion, particularly with regard to dress. A four-item version was suggested by Wells and Tigert (1971) and apparently used by Darden and Perreault (1976). Two-and four-item versions were used by Lumpkin and Darden (1982) and Wilkes (1992), respectively. See also the scale used by Schnaars and Schiffman (1984).

The sixteen-item, five-point Likert-type scale measures the intensity of the relationship that a viewer has with the characters and setting of a TV program and the extent to which it affects the viewer's self-identity.

The scale is composed of Likert-type statements measuring the degree to which a consumer views a specified behavior to be consistent with his or her self-image in a specified situation. The similarity between a consumer's self-concept and the image held of the product/behavior is the focus of the measure. Two versions of the scale used three items and five-point response formats whereas another version used five items and a seven-point response scale.

Seven, seven-point Likert-type statements evaluate a person's willingness to do whatever it takes to be the center of attention.

Sixteen, seven-point Likert-type statements assess a person's concern about clothes as they affect his or her appearance. The scale measures the degree to which a respondent is willing to invest time, money, and effort into clothes and how they will look.