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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


This is a three-item, five-point scale that assesses the experience a person has had with shyness-related emotions. The directions and response scale can be worded so as to measure the intensity of the emotional state at the present time or they can be adjusted to measure the frequency with which a person has experienced the emotion during some specified time period. One-word items were used in the study by Westbrook and Oliver (1991) whereas phrases based on those same items were used by Allen, Machleit, and Kleine (1992). This scale has also been referred to as shame.

This is a three-item, five-point scale used to measure one's stillness-related emotional reaction to some specified stimulus.

A three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person would feel in control in a particular setting and be able to influence outcomes.

A ten-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree of subtly degrading and derogatory opinions held by a person toward blacks in general. The items suggest that blacks are socially, morally, and/or educationally backward.

A five-item, five-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person is characterized by an abnormal amount of fear, worry, and self-debasing feelings and attitudes. This measure was called obsessive-compulsive by O'Guinn and Faber (1989; Faber and O'Guinn 1992).

The scale is composed of five, seven-point items that are intended to measure the extent to which a person reports feeling what the characters in an advertising drama are feeling. This is not just an awareness of what the characters are feeling but absorption or "feeling into" another's affective experience. Thus, although related to sympathy, this scale is intended to measure something different. The scale was referred to as ad response empathy by Escalas and Stern (2003).

Eight, seven-point, one word descriptors are used to assess the strength of the sadness-related emotions reported by a person as a result of exposure to some stimulus. Using the same items but slightly different instructions, another version of the scale measured emotions depicted by someone else or in something else. The stimuli examined by Williams and Aaker (2002) were print ads but the scale appears to be amenable for use with a variety of stimuli.

The scale is intended to measure the pleasantness-related dimension of a feeling a person is experiencing at some point in time or immediately after exposure to some stimulus. Three versions were used by Broach, Page, and Wilson (1995): one to measure how subjects felt before the experimental manipulation (prior pleasantness), one to measure the effect of the treatment (program pleasantness), and one to measure the feeling evoked by an ad (commercial pleasantness). The version used by Ellen and Bone (1998) had to do with the smell of an object. Keller, Lipkus, and Rimer (2003) used their version of the scale as a mood manipulation check after respondents had written a detailed description of a happy or sad event they had experienced. Mantel and Kellaris (2003) used the scale with regard to the background music in a mock radio commercial.

This scale uses three, seven-point Likert-type statements to measure the level of positive emotional attachment a consumer has to a certain store or a chain of stores.

Five, seven-point items are used to assess the degree to a viewer reports an awareness and understanding of what the characters in an advertising drama are feeling. This is in contrast to reporting that one actually feels what the characters are feeling. Thus, although sympathy is related to empathy, this scale is specifically intended to measure the former. The scale was referred to as ad response sympathy by Escalas and Stern (2003).