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Testimonial

This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin

feelings

This is a three-item, five-point scale that assesses the extent to which a person reports experiencing the sadness-related emotion. The directions and response scale can be worded so as to measure the intensity of the emotional state at the present time or they can be adjusted to measure the frequency with which a person has experienced the emotion during some specified time period. One-word items were used by Westbrook and Oliver (1991) whereas phrases based on those same items were used by Allen, Machleit, and Kleine (1992).

This is a four-item, five-point scale measuring a sadness-related emotional reaction to some specified stimulus. Mano and Oliver (1993) referred to the scale as unpleasantness.

The scale is composed of four, five-point Likert-type statements that measure a particular state of feeling of transient duration. Mood is conceptualized as being a milder form of feeling than emotions that nonetheless is not sudden and can last hours or days. The scale measures mood at a particular point in time on a simple good/bad continuum rather than attempting to assess various dimensions of mood.

A three-item, seven-point scale is purported to measure the extent to which a stimulus triggers ''mellow'' sorts of emotions due to the experiences it is associated with in memory. MacInnis and Park (1991) referred to the scale variously as the valence of ''sad'' emotions and ''negative'' emotions.

A three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person would feel crowded in a particular setting. The construct also carries with it the sense that perceived crowding is linked with stress and is an unpleasant subjective experience.

A three-item, five-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the frequency with which a consumer buys something not so much because of a desire for the product itself but as a desire to engage in purchase activity. The scale was called object attachment by O'Guinn and Faber (1989; Faber and O'Guinn 1992).

The scale is composed of three, seven-point uni-polar descriptors that are used to assess the degree to which a person reports being dissatisfied with some stimulus. As used in the studies cited below, the stimulus was a service experience.

Joy

Three items are used to assess a person's experience of a joy-related emotion. The directions and response scale can be worded so as to measure the intensity of the emotional state at the present time or they can be adjusted to measure the frequency with which a person has experienced the emotional trait during some specified time period. One-word items were used in the studies by Westbrook and Oliver (1991) and later by Williams and Aaker (2002); phrases based on those same items were used by Allen, Machleit, and Kleine (1992).

This measure is composed of several uni-polar items and is purported to measure the degree of "warm" feelings a consumer reports experiencing when exposed to a specific advertisement. The scale has been used with varying numbers of items.

There is an important distinction between this measure and one such as V4, #562. As Mooradian stated in the directions used with his scale, subjects were to describe "reactions to the ad, not to how you would describe the ad" (1996, p. 101). Admittedly, there should be a high correspondence between the two but they are still theoretically distinct constructs.

This measure is composed of several uni-polar items and is purported to measure the degree of negative feelings a consumer reports experiencing when exposed to a specific advertisement. The scale has been used over time with varying numbers of items.

There is an important distinction between this measure and attitude-toward-the-ad. As Mooradian stated in the directions used with his scale, subjects were to describe "reactions to the ad, not to how you would describe the ad" (1996, p. 101). Admittedly, there should be a high correspondence between the two but they are still theoretically distinct constructs.