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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam


The importance a person places on hard work to attain financial rewards and social power is measured with five, eight-point items.

This six item, six-point Likert-type scale measures an individual difference characteristic that varies between people by how much weight is placed on “reason” versus “feelings” when making decisions.  Three of the statements refer to financial or product choice situations while the other three items are more general.

The belief that one has enough money for one’s needs and some to spare is measured with eight, seven-point Likert-type items.  To be clear, the scale does not measure if respondents are materialistic or if they are “rich” relative to others but merely that they view themselves as having sufficient funds for their needs.

With four, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures one's beliefs about the economic benefits that advertising has for a country.  As discussed further below, the items are phrased with respect to advertising in general but they can be easily adapted for use with particular media.

A person's attitude regarding his/her financial position relative to peers and to the previous year is measured using a five-item, nine-point scale.

A person's knowledge of various typical consumer financial products is measured by asking ten questions.  It is considered an objective measure rather than a subjective one because each question has a correct answer rather than being a person's opinion of his/her knowledge level.

Three, seven-point items are used to measure one's self-expressed level of understanding of a particular investment, especially how it functions in saving money, and one's comfort in choosing to invest in it.

The importance of saving money, particularly in helping one to feel more financially secure, is measured using five, seven-point Likert-type items.

Using nine, five-point Likert-type items, the scale measures a consumer's tendency to place greater importance on low prices rather than high quality when shopping, particularly with respect to groceries.

A person's self-expressed level of understanding a particular object (topic, product, company, et cetera) is measured in the scale with three, seven-point items.