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Testimonial

The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensable in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University

food

Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a consumer’s negative attitude regarding large food systems (producers and retailers) and the desire to avoid buying from them.

Using four, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures a consumer’s belief that buying locally produced foods helps the community and it is important to him/her to support that.

The scale has four, seven-point Likert-type items that measure how much a person believes that some particular produce (vegetables and/or fruit) is not normal and has something wrong with it, with an emphasis on how it looks. 

Four, seven-point Likert-type items measure the degree to which a person’s attitude about some produce (vegetables and/or fruit) in a particular context is harmful to eat and could make him/her sick.

This scale has three, seven-point Likert-type items that measure a consumer’s belief that locally produced foods taste better and are more nutritious than those produced elsewhere.

Five, five-point items measure a person’s belief that, with respect to heterosexual couples, one gender tends to dominate food-related decisions while the other is more dependent.

The scale uses three, seven-point items to measure a consumer’s belief that a particular food product featured in an advertisement is likely to have genetically modified ingredients. (GMO stands for Genetically Modified Organisms.)

Three, seven-point semantic-differentials are used to measure a food’s healthiness in terms of its effectiveness.  To be clear, the emphasis in this particular measure is not on the nutritiousness of the food but rather how well it helps one to stay physically fit.

The degree to which a person believes there is a relationship between the healthiness of food and its cost such that healthier foods tend to be more expensive than unhealthy foods is measured with three, seven-point items.

How much a person anticipates that if a particular meal is eaten then he/she would feel bad and sorry about it afterwards.  A three- and a four-item version are discussed.  Each item has its own unique semantic differential and a 101-point sliding scale.