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Testimonial

The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensible in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University

freedom

Four, seven-point items are used to measure the motivation a person has to be free to make his/her own choices and not be controlled.

Six, seven-point Likert-type items measure a person’s resistance to norms and influence from others.

With ten Likert items, the scale measures the degree to which a person believes that his/her parent(s) made few demands on the kids while they were growing up and allowed them to regulate their own activities.

The degree to which a person believes that a particular individual has the right to make his/her own purchase choices is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

How much a person disagrees with a particular ban is measured with three, nine-point items.  Along with instructions that can be created for use with the scale, the items are flexible for use with a variety of bans.

The scale uses six statements to assess how much a person believes someone or something is true to itself and does not follow social conventions.  As written, the items are best suited for describing others but with minor editing, the scale could be used to describe the respondent's perceived level of autonomy.

Six, five-point Likert-type items measure a person’s belief that societal rules and norms are overly restrictive and limit person freedom too much.

Three, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a consumer feels a certain product enables him/her to express self, with an emphasis on the freedom in choosing it.

Four, eight-point items are used to measure how much a person felt free making a particular decision and how negatively he/she feels when freedom of choice is restricted.

The scale has three, seven-point Likert-type items that measure a person's belief that a particular company utilizes people in the product design process who are not completely free to produce new ideas but, instead, must conform to company rules and conventions.  There were two slightly different versions of the scale, one referring to "company designers" and the other referring to "users."