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Testimonial

The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensible in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University

friendly

Using a Likert-type response format, the scale measures the degree to which a person thinks that relevant others believe customers ought to be friendly to employees, especially to those at stores who provide service.  Items for both a four-item and a two-item version are described.

How much a customer believes that other people would approve if he/her acted unfriendly to a particular employee is measured by the scale.  The scale is useful when it is assumed that the actions of an employee could motivate customers to be unfriendly.  Items for both an eight-item and a five-item version are described.

This Likert scale measures the degree to which a customer of a store believes an employee was unfriendly based upon several verbal and non-verbal behaviors observed during a visit.  Items for both a nine-item and a three-item version are described.

The scale measures how common a person believes it is in a certain setting for people to behave in ways that are unfriendly.  The scale was made for use in a situation where customers interact with service employees.  However, the items appear like they could be used with minimal changes in many other contexts as long as people are interacting with others using verbal and non-verbal means to express unfriendliness.  Items for both an eleven-item and a seven-item version are described. 

The three item, seven-point Likert scale measures how much a person believes other customers in the store treat employees in an unfriendly manner.

Four, seven-point uni-polar items are used to measure how much a person is described as being kind and friendly.  (Two versions of the scale are described, both having four items and three of them being in common.)

How friendly and sociable a person appears to be is measured with four, seven-point semantic differentials. 

With three, seven-point items, the scale measures the importance a person places on having friendly interactions with other participants of an online discussion thread.

The scale uses four, seven-point unipolar items to measure how caring and kind a person is considered to be.

The scale used three items to measure the degree to which a person believes that a particular set of employees express caring and attention to customers.  This scale does not measure empathy in the sense of one person experiencing the feelings on another but rather employees doing things within their power to show concern for customers.