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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


Using three, five-point Likert-type items, the scale measures the degree to which a person enjoys trying multiple brands within a product category.  The scale was called brand variety seeking by Hung, Li, and Tse (2011).

A person's enjoyment in playing a particular game and desire to play it again is measured in this scale using three, seven-point Likert-type items.

The degree to which a person believes that shopping at a certain website is likeable and absorbing is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type.

This five-item, five-point Likert-type scale assesses the degree to which a person expresses enjoyment in watching TV commercials.

This seven-point Likert-type scale measures the degree to which a person reports being willing, even eager, to try new and/or unfamiliar stores and products.

The five-item, five-point Likert-type scale measures the enduring tendency of a consumer to derive pleasure from shopping. The scale appears to be tapping into recreational shopping more than focused prepurchase search.

The three-item, nine-point Likert-type scale is intended to measure the degree to which a consumer is motivated to shop for hedonic reasons (for fun) rather than for utilitarian reasons (merely to buy products). Kaltcheva and Weitz (2006) referred to the scale as motivational orientation. Although the scale stems they used with the items framed them for examining the motivation for a particular shopping incidence, rephrasing the stem could easily make the scale appropriate for measuring a consumer's longer term shopping orientation.

The scale is composed of eight, seven-point Likert-type statements that measure the degree to which a consumer expresses high intrinsic motivation to adopt and use innovative, technology-based goods and services. Those scoring high on the scale are referred to as gadget lovers.

The scale has three ten-point items that are used to measure the level of pleasure a person anticipates having with respect to some future experience.

Three, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure how interesting and enjoyable it is to browse a website. The scale was referred to as the interest subfactor of a second-order construct that Wang et al. (2007) called flow. While this factor and the others measured by Wang et al. (2007) might be viewed together as composing flow, they do not by themselves (independently) appear to measure flow.  Given this, the scales are not individually referred to in the database as measures of flow.