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Scale Reviews

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The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensible in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University


The extent to which a consumer habitually uses a particular product or brand for a purpose without consciously thinking about its choice is measured using four, five-point Likert-type items.  Four versions of the scale are described, varying based on which product and type of usage is being referred to: a product used regularly, a product that was replaced by another product that was used regularly, a product used rarely or not at all, and a product which was replaced by another product that ended up not being used much if at all.

This nine item, seven-point Likert-type scale measures a consumer’s chronic tendency to save money that is incorporated into his/her lifestyle.

The scale measures how strongly a person believes that certain habits related to one's diet and physical activity eventually lead to poor health.

The scale is composed of 95 items and uses a five-point, Likert-type response format. It is intended to measure a personality characteristic concerned with the desire for change and variation in stimuli. The originators of the scale have said that change seeking ''is a habitual, consistent pattern of behavior which acts to control the amount and kind of stimulus input a given organism receives'' (Garlington and Shimota 1964, p. 920).

Three statements with a seven-point response format are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a consumer expresses a lack of control over the urge to purchase products.

The degree to which an advertisement is described as being likely to change one's attitudes and behaviors is measured using three, seven-point semantic differentials.

The scale uses five, seven-point Likert-type items to assess a consumer's general tendency to buy the same brands over time rather than switching around to try other brands. The measure is not as specific as normally considered of "brand loyalty" where the tendency to purchase a particular brand is assessed rather than the propensity to be loyal in all sorts of purchases.

This scale is intended to measure a shopping orientation that is characterized by loyalty toward brands and stores, with an emphasis on the former. The measure is composed of four, five-point Likert-type items and was referred to as habitual and brand-loyal shopping conscious by Shim and Gehrt (1996).