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Testimonial

I have relied on the Marketing Scales Handbooks over several years in academic and industry roles and look forward to using the newest edition. A seven on a seven-point satisfaction scale!
Tom Prinsen, Ph.D.
Global Manager Market Intelligence, Biomet Orthope

happiness

The five, nine-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person has strong, positive affective responses to the occurrence or expectation of reward-like events.

This is a four-item, five-point scale measuring a sadness-related emotional reaction to some specified stimulus. Mano and Oliver (1993) referred to the scale as unpleasantness.

This is a three-item, five-point scale that assesses the extent to which a person reports experiencing the sadness-related emotion. The directions and response scale can be worded so as to measure the intensity of the emotional state at the present time or they can be adjusted to measure the frequency with which a person has experienced the emotion during some specified time period. One-word items were used by Westbrook and Oliver (1991) whereas phrases based on those same items were used by Allen, Machleit, and Kleine (1992).

This is a six-item, six-point scale measuring the pleasure-related emotional reaction one may have to an environmental stimulus. The scale focuses on the person's feelings rather than being a direct description of the stimulus.

This scale is composed of six, five-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a person is oriented toward possessing goods and money as a means of personal happiness and social progress.

The scale is composed of four, five-point Likert-type statements that measure a particular state of feeling of transient duration. Mood is conceptualized as being a milder form of feeling than emotions that nonetheless is not sudden and can last hours or days. The scale measures mood at a particular point in time on a simple good/bad continuum rather than attempting to assess various dimensions of mood.

A three-item, five-point scale is used to measure one's excitement-related emotional reaction to some specific stimulus.

The scale is composed of eleven, five-point Likert-type statements that are intended to measure flow and/or peak experiences in a consumption context. (More description is provided in the Origin section.)

The scale is composed of three, seven-point statements that measure how pleased a person is with a relationship. It appears that the scale may be used when studying relationships between people, brands, or organizations. In the case of Thomson (2006), the relationship was between consumers and a "human brand" such as a celebrity.

Three, seven-point items are used to measure the extent to which a person is pleased with the result of a particular event, e.g., bargaining.