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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

hazard

The scale has four, seven-point bi-polar adjectives that measure how much an event is viewed not only as bad but also as a crisis. 

The degree to which a person believes that a particular health issue is serious and important is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

The scale uses four, seven-point Likert-type items to measure the degree to which a person believes that the world is dangerous in general and, more specifically, that he/she does not feel safe.

Composed of five, seven-point items, the scale measures how unprotected and unprepared a person feels with respect to the threats coming from the “world” around him/her.

Six, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure several negative beliefs a person has about smoking.  The items refer not only to the direct effects that the behavior may have on the smoker but also to the indirect effects that the smoke may have on children.

The scale uses four uni-polar items with a five-point Likert-type response format to measure how devastating and distressing a situation seems to be.

A consumer's beliefs regarding the positive effects that so-called "green" products have on the environment are measured in this scale using three statements. 

Twelve, four-point Likert-type items are used to measure a person's beliefs about three negative aspects of smoking: tobacco company deception, secondhand smoke dangers, and addictiveness.

Three, seven-point items measure the extent to which a respondent describes some stimulus as being unsafe and scary. The stimulus used by Block and Keller (1995) was a pamphlet about sexually transmitted diseases and how to avoid them. Thus, in that context the scale was measuring the perceived severity of the diseases described.

Four, five-point Likert-type statements are purported to measure the extent to which a consumer considers some specified product class or brand as being hazardous to use. The product class examined by Griffin, Babin, and Attaway (1996) was power lawn tools.