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Scale Reviews

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This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin


The scale has three statements that measure a customer’s belief that one or more employees of a retail establishment had ill-will toward him/her and wanted to harm him/her in some way.

Using four, uni-polar items, the scale measures the extent to which a person experienced feelings of resentment and outrage during a particular event.

Using six, seven-point uni-polar items, the scale measures the extent to which a person reports feeling attacked verbally in the sense of his/her image being maligned.

The three, seven-point Likert-type items appear to measure more than just how mad a person is about something.  The emphasis of the items is on an extreme form of anger.  It was referred to as outrage by Gelbrich (2011).

The level of violence a person believes there is in a particular video game is measured using four, five-point items.  Given the phrasing of one of the items, the assumption is that the respondent has actually played the game rather than having merely heard about it in some way.

Five unipolar items are used to measure one's feeling of frustration and betrayal.  The scale seems to be flexible for use in a variety of contexts.

The degree to which a consumer expresses contempt for a particular brand and a willingness to bring harm to it is measured with six, seven-point items.

The level of hostility portrayed in an advertisement that upsets a viewer is measured in this scale using three, ten-point unipolar items.

A person's tendency to respond angrily and with hostility when provoked is measured in this scale using six, seven-point Likert-type items.

Six, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure a consumer's tendency to express and/or exhibit hostility toward a marketer, especially salespeople. An 11-item version of the scale translated into Dutch was used by Richins (1987).