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Testimonial

The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensible in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University

hostility

The scale has three statements that measure a customer’s belief that one or more employees of a retail establishment had ill-will toward him/her and wanted to harm him/her in some way.

Using four, uni-polar items, the scale measures the extent to which a person experienced feelings of resentment and outrage during a particular event.

Using six, seven-point uni-polar items, the scale measures the extent to which a person reports feeling attacked verbally in the sense of his/her image being maligned.

The three, seven-point Likert-type items appear to measure more than just how mad a person is about something.  The emphasis of the items is on an extreme form of anger.  It was referred to as outrage by Gelbrich (2011).

The level of violence a person believes there is in a particular video game is measured using four, five-point items.  Given the phrasing of one of the items, the assumption is that the respondent has actually played the game rather than having merely heard about it in some way.

Five unipolar items are used to measure one's feeling of frustration and betrayal.  The scale seems to be flexible for use in a variety of contexts.

The degree to which a consumer expresses contempt for a particular brand and a willingness to bring harm to it is measured with six, seven-point items.

The level of hostility portrayed in an advertisement that upsets a viewer is measured in this scale using three, ten-point unipolar items.

A person's tendency to respond angrily and with hostility when provoked is measured in this scale using six, seven-point Likert-type items.

Six, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure a consumer's tendency to express and/or exhibit hostility toward a marketer, especially salespeople. An 11-item version of the scale translated into Dutch was used by Richins (1987).