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Scale Reviews

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Measuring is complex and critical for research in marketing, advertising, and consumer psychology. These books are excellent tools for researchers and professionals of those areas that need to find reliable and valid scales for their research. They have helped me save time and consider new constructs in my academic research.
Juan Fernando Tavera
University of Antioquia, COLOMBIA


Three semantic differentials are used to measure how important and useful something is to a consumer. As used by Miyazaki, Grewal, and Goodstein (2005), the scale was meant to measure a product attribute's salience to a consumer in an evaluation task. However, it appears the items are generic enough to be used in a variety of contexts.

The extent to which a person perceives a stimulus to be relevant and important is measured in this scale using seven-point bi-polar adjectives.

The scale is intended to measure the extent to which a person believes that buying and owning things are important in his/her life.  The original version of the scale has seven, five-point Likert-type items.  Alternative versions of the scale, varying in their length, have been developed and tested as well.

Four, seven-point statements are used to measure the importance of a particular voting decision to a person and the degree to which he/she is concerned about the decision.

Eight, nine-point semantic differential items are employed to measure the level of interest a person had while reading a product description. In the study by Johar (1995), the product description was in an advertisement. In the study by Chakravarti and Janiszewski (2003) subjects read several product descriptions provided by the authors which were received in text form after clicking on brand names as part of a computer-aided task.

The six item, seven-point Likert-type scale is intended to measure the importance of politics to the respondent and its centrality in his/her life.

This semantic differential scale measures the temporary (rather than enduring and/or intrinsic) relevance of an object to a person. Whereas enduring involvement is ongoing and is probably related to a product class, situational involvement is a passing motivation. The scale can be easily customized for measuring involvement with such things a particular ad a person has been exposed to or the amount of involvement in a certain purchase decision.

The original version of the scale has twenty, seven point semantic differential items that measure the enduring and intrinsic (rather than situational) relevance of an object to a person. The scale is easily customized to measure involvement with a product category, a particular brand, an ad, merchant, et cetera. The scale was referred to as the Personal Involvement Inventory (PII) by the originator (Zaichkowsky 1985).

Abbreviated versions of the scale have been used in several studies. Even Zaichkowsky (1994) introduced a version with just ten items and distinguished between affective and cognitive involvement subscales.

The scale is composed of four descriptors with a seven-point Likert-type response format and is used to measure the degree that a person describes an advertisement as being helpful and useful.

Four, seven-point items are used to measure the level of personal importance a person places on the outcome of a decision he/she is making.