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I have relied on the Marketing Scales Handbooks over several years in academic and industry roles and look forward to using the newest edition. A seven on a seven-point satisfaction scale!
Tom Prinsen, Ph.D.
Global Manager Market Intelligence, Biomet Orthope


This semantic differential scale measures the temporary (rather than enduring and/or intrinsic) relevance of an object to a person. Whereas enduring involvement is ongoing and is probably related to a product class, situational involvement is a passing motivation. The scale can be easily customized for measuring involvement with such things a particular ad a person has been exposed to or the amount of involvement in a certain purchase decision.

The original version of the scale has twenty, seven point semantic differential items that measure the enduring and intrinsic (rather than situational) relevance of an object to a person. The scale is easily customized to measure involvement with a product category, a particular brand, an ad, merchant, et cetera. The scale was referred to as the Personal Involvement Inventory (PII) by the originator (Zaichkowsky 1985).

Abbreviated versions of the scale have been used in several studies. Even Zaichkowsky (1994) introduced a version with just ten items and distinguished between affective and cognitive involvement subscales.

The scale is composed of four descriptors with a seven-point Likert-type response format and is used to measure the degree that a person describes an advertisement as being helpful and useful.

Four, seven-point items are used to measure the level of personal importance a person places on the outcome of a decision he/she is making.

Three statements are used to measure the importance placed by a viewer on positive comments and endorsements of a product made by users and experts. The scale was called comments and demonstrations by Agee and Martin (2001) and referred to the importance of this type of information being provided in infomercials.

Three Likert-type statements are used to measure the extent to which a person believes that advertising has value and is important. The items are general enough so that they can refer advertising in general or to advertising in a specific medium. The scale was not, however, developed for use with a specific ad.

The scale is composed of seven-point semantic-differentials intended to measure the degree to which a decision involves more thinking (utilitarian motives) or more feeling (affective motives).

Three, seven-point uni-polar items are used to measure how much a person considers prestige to be an important criterion when shopping for a specified product. The product category examined by Kirmani, Sood, and Bridges (1999) was jeans.

The four-item scale measures the care taken by a subject in a study he/she has just participated in. Additionally, one item taps into the subject's motivation to process information related to the focal stimulus of the study.

The scale uses three, seven-point statements to measure the degree to which a person pays relatively more attention to a particular possession than to other possessions. The investment of time and thought in the object "layers' more meaning on it and makes it even more important to the owner. The scale was called psychic energy by Grayson and Shulman (2000).