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Measuring is complex and critical for research in marketing, advertising, and consumer psychology. These books are excellent tools for researchers and professionals of those areas that need to find reliable and valid scales for their research. They have helped me save time and consider new constructs in my academic research.
Juan Fernando Tavera
University of Antioquia, COLOMBIA


Various seven-point bipolar adjectives are purported to measure a person's opinion about advertising as a social institution as opposed to the methods used by advertisers. The distinction is that even if a person had been exposed to a lot of specific ads that were viewed negatively, he or she might still believe that advertising as a form of communication was valuable.

The scale is purported to measure the perceived quality and legitimacy of the claims made in an advertisement. Although each of the uses cited here used a slightly different version of the scale, all had at least two items in common.

Three, seven-point Likert-type items measure the degree of interest a consumer expresses having in a specified product category.

Three, five-point Likert-type items that appear to measure the value a person places on being a homemaker. The scale measures not only whether the respondent views herself/himself as a homemaker but also the importance of that role in general.

Three, seven point semantic differentials measure how important one person believes he/she is to another. Because Howard, Gengler, and Jain (1995) administered this scale after subjects had received a compliment-like manipulation (name remembering), the scale was viewed as capturing a flattery-type construct. However, in another context, the scale might be used to measure what a person thinks another person's attitude is toward him or her, with an emphasis more on general affect rather than something specific such as flattery.

A three-item, seven-point semantic differential scale is used in measuring the importance of a specified product characteristic to a consumer. Sujan and Bettman (1989) used it for attributes of cameras.

The five statements in this scale are used to measure the importance of various product attributes in the purchase of shampoo. Stapel, Likert, and semantic differential versions of the scale were developed and tested.