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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam


The degree to which a person believes that a particular health issue is serious and important is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

The scale has four, seven-point semantic differentials that are intended to measure the visual clarity and intensity of a particular advertisement.

Five, nine-point semantic differentials are used to measure how visually well-defined and vivid a stimulus appears to be.

How graphic and intense a stimulus is perceived to be is measured in this scale with four, seven-point semantic differentials.

The scale uses four uni-polar items with a five-point Likert-type response format to measure how devastating and distressing a situation seems to be.

Three, five-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree of brand competition in the market, with an emphasis on the fierceness of the advertising among a set of brands.

Three, seven-point items measure a consumer's annoyance with the quantity of times a company has contacted him/her.  Although written with respect to e-mail messages, the items appear to be flexible for use with several other forms of contact such as phone calls, text messages, advertisements, and paper mail.

How much a person plays video games and loves doing so is measured in this scale with three, seven-point items.

Four items are used in this scale to measure the extent of the negative affective reaction a customer experienced after a service failure.  The emphasis is on the affective aspect of the response (what the person felt) rather than behavioral (what the person wanted to do).

This 17-item, seven-point scale measures the degree and ease with which a person reports images coming to mind while processing some specific stimulus as well as the intensity of those images. Burns, Biwas, and Bibin (1993) referred to the measure as vividness.