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Scale Reviews

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This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin


A three-item, Likert-type scale is used to measure a person's description of his/her intention in a recently completed consumption-related choice activity to select the best product alternative among those available.

This six-item scale measures the degree to which a person indicates an inclination to recommend a business school to others. The scale appears to be intended for a current student of a MBA program.

This four-item, eight-point scale is used to measure a consumer's attitude toward some new product concept.

The three-item, seven-point scale attempts to assess a person's stated likelihood of getting a diagnostic blood test in the future.

A four-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the inclination to buy a new product as soon as it is available. There is also a sense of urgency to purchase the product earlier than other people (referents). There are direct and indirect versions of the scale. The difference between the two has to do with whether the items are responded to in the first person (direct version) or the third person (indirect version).

A four-item, five-point summated ratings scale is used to measure the attitude and intention one has toward a specific brand of beer compared with the brand the person drinks most often.

A person's likelihood of buying a particular brand of product again is measured using this five item, nine-point Likert-type scale.  While this measure may be tapping into some aspects of loyalty, it does not seem to be directly measuring that construct.

Three, seven-point items are used in this scale to measure the likelihood that a customer will visit a particular retail store again for the purpose of buying something from a particular product category.

Four, seven-point items are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a consumer would be motivated to seek a refund from a store if it is learned that a product he/she bought there was cheaper elsewhere. The scale was called willingness to claim refund by Kukar-Kinney and Grewal (2007).

The scale has three, seven-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a consumer who has done business with a service provider previously intends to do it again in the next few years. Although the statements are stated in terms of a service provider, they appear to be amenable for rephrasing and use with other entities, particularly retail stores.