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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


The scale is composed of six, nine-point Likert-type items that measure the degree of pleasure a person reports feeling during a recent experience which heavily involved the person's creativity.

This Likert-type scale measures the degree to which a viewer expresses familiarity with a commercial. Depending upon the items being used to compose the scale, a sense of tedium towards the ad and/or possibly irritation is being captured as well. In that case, the scale could be used as a measure of ad wearout.

A nine-item, six-point Likert scale is used to measure a consumer's attitude toward an ad with an emphasis on the extent to which he/she relates to it personally.

The scale measures the the extent to which a person perceives that an advertisement has interfered with his/her processing of the non-advertising content of a medium, e.g., watching a TV program, surfing the web, reading articles in a magazine. Although the construct is theorized to lead to negative affective reactions (irritation) and behavioral responses (avoidance), it is viewed as distinct from them.

The scale is purported to capture a person's frustration and irritation with a stimulus. In the studies by Taylor (1994; Taylor and Claxton 1994), a seven-point, seven-item scale was used. As a result of the studies by Richins (1997), a four-point, three-item scale was developed. In the studies conducted by Argo, Dahl, and Morales (2006), five, seven-point items were used.

The scale is composed of four, five-point uni-polar items that are used to measure a person's beliefs regarding the way an advertisement is visually presented with an emphasis on how irritating it is. The study by Burns and Lutz (2006) focused on the types of ad formats used online, e.g., banners, pop-ups, skyscrapers, interstitials. A five-point Likert-type response format was used with the items.

The five-point, four item scale seems to measure a person's evaluation of the "spokesperson" in an advertisement to which the person has been exposed. It may be best to view the scale as a general evaluation of a spokesperson since several different facets are referred to rather than a single facet such as likeability, persuasiveness, or trustworthiness.

The scale is composed of unipolar items used to capture a general evaluative dimension of one's attitude about a certain advertisement. This is in contrast to measures of one's affective reaction to an ad. The subset of items used by both Edwards, Li, and Lee (2002) and Li, Edwards, and Lee (2002) was intended to measure how irritating an ad is.

The scale has four, seven-point uni-polar items that are used to measure the extent to which a person experiences negative affect after exposure to some stimulus.

The scale is composed of ten, semantic differential phrases measuring a person's reaction to an ad he/she has been exposed to with the emphasis on the negative types of feelings that were experienced.