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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

justification

Four, seven-point Likert-type items measure to what degree a person believes that a social standard of a particular group of people makes sense and is of benefit to them.  The norm is not stated in the items themselves and must be provided to participants some way.

How much a person believes that, as a result of some accomplishment or experience, he/she is justified in buying something for self as a reward is measured by five, seven-point items.

This Likert-type scale measures the degree of comfort and confidence a person feels regarding a statement he/she has written defending a moral stance taken on a subject.

The scale uses three, nine-point semantic differentials to measure how much a person believes he/she deserves a special offer (sales promotion) made by a business rather than it being unwarranted.

Three statements are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a person believes that he/she should receive a certain discount that is part of some promotion.

Using four, seven-point items, this scale measures a consumer's ability to explain the reasons why a particular brand or type of product is preferred.

The three item, nine-point Likert-type scale measures the relative ease a consumer experienced in selecting one product from among several and confidence that the decision could be explained to someone who questioned it. The scale was called justifiability by Heitmann, Lehmann, and Herrmann (2007).

Three, seven-point statements are used to measure how easily a person completed a task in which he/she was supposed to provide reasons for doing something. In Tybout et al. (2005), subjects were asked to give potential reasons for driving a particular car.