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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


Two-item, five-point items are used to measure the recalled number of times a company failed to handle a customer's request in the previous two years. Crosby and Stephens (1987) used the scale with policy owners and asked them to respond about insurance companies.

This is a four-item scale measuring the enduring and intrinsic (rather than situational) relevance of an object to a person. The object in the Slama and Tashchian (1987) study was shampoo. Stapel, Likert, and semantic differential versions of the scale were developed and tested.