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Testimonial

As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings

knowledge

A three-item, eleven-point scale is used to provide an idea about the certainty with which a consumer perceives he/she has been able to accurately reflect his/her evaluation of a brand.

This three-item, seven-point scale is intended to measure the certainty with which a consumer perceives he/she has been able to reflect his/her evaluation of a soft drink accurately.

This four-item, seven-point scale is used to measure the degree to which people say they are confident in their ability to understand and use specified nutritional information on food packaging.

The scale measures the degree to which a person believes that a website enables the user to know where he/she is, go where he/she wants to go, and do what he/she wants to accomplish at the site.

Five, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the confidence a consumer expresses in knowing how to properly use an object. The objects examined by Meuter et al. (2005) were two kinds of self-service technologies. In the context of co-production, the scale has been viewed as a measure of role clarity (Meuter et al. 2005; Dong, Evans, and Zou 2008).

The scale has three, seven-point semantic-differentials that measure the degree to which a person describes an experience as being common and occurring frequently or as atypical and rarely happening. Although used by Hess, Ganesan, and Klein (2007) with regard to a service failure, the items themselves are general enough to apply to a wide variety of events one might experience.

The six item, nine-point Likert-type scale measures the difficulty a consumer had in knowing what people from various references groups thought about products and what their recommendations would have been. The scale was called ambiguous social reaction by Heitmann, Lehmann, and Herrmann (2007).

Six statements with seven-point response formats are used to measure the extent to which a consumer had relevant information when making a decision. The items seem to be especially appropriate when referring to the level of information one had prior to external search activity. This is probably why Urbany, Dickson, Wilkie (1989) referred to the scale as pre-search uncertainty.

This scale is composed of nine-point Likert-type items intended to measure the degree to which a person desires more information about a brand because of a lack of knowledge about what it is like. The scale was referred to as perceived risk by Erdem and Swait (2004) and Erdem, Swait, and Valenzuela (2006).

Seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure a consumer's belief in his/her ability to successfully complete a specified task. The tasks examined by Meuter et al. (2005) were two kinds of self-service technologies. The scale was called ability in future co-creation by Dong, Evans, and Zou (2008) due to the context in which it was used.