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Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam

knowledge

Five, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the confidence a consumer expresses in knowing how to properly use an object. The objects examined by Meuter et al. (2005) were two kinds of self-service technologies. In the context of co-production, the scale has been viewed as a measure of role clarity (Meuter et al. 2005; Dong, Evans, and Zou 2008).

The scale has three, seven-point semantic-differentials that measure the degree to which a person describes an experience as being common and occurring frequently or as atypical and rarely happening. Although used by Hess, Ganesan, and Klein (2007) with regard to a service failure, the items themselves are general enough to apply to a wide variety of events one might experience.

The six item, nine-point Likert-type scale measures the difficulty a consumer had in knowing what people from various references groups thought about products and what their recommendations would have been. The scale was called ambiguous social reaction by Heitmann, Lehmann, and Herrmann (2007).

Six statements with seven-point response formats are used to measure the extent to which a consumer had relevant information when making a decision. The items seem to be especially appropriate when referring to the level of information one had prior to external search activity. This is probably why Urbany, Dickson, Wilkie (1989) referred to the scale as pre-search uncertainty.

This scale is composed of nine-point Likert-type items intended to measure the degree to which a person desires more information about a brand because of a lack of knowledge about what it is like. The scale was referred to as perceived risk by Erdem and Swait (2004) and Erdem, Swait, and Valenzuela (2006).

Seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure a consumer's belief in his/her ability to successfully complete a specified task. The tasks examined by Meuter et al. (2005) were two kinds of self-service technologies. The scale was called ability in future co-creation by Dong, Evans, and Zou (2008) due to the context in which it was used.

Six Likert-type statements are used to measure one's familiarity with the persuasion tactics used by marketers to sell products and having confidence in one's ability to deal with those tactics.

Three statements are used to measure the degree to which a person accepts personal responsibility for preventing skin cancer.

Five, seven-point Likert-type items are used in the scale to measure the degree to which a person is well familiar with the rules of returning products to stores as well as the buyer's rights to do so. Harris called the scale knowledge of returning rules and regulations.

The scale uses three, seven-point Likert-type items to measure the extent to which a consumer gathers information about product quality before making decisions because of its perceived importance.