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Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation

leadership

With five, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale is intended to measure a person’s motivation to be in control of people and decisions.

The belief in one’s ability to influence another person or group is measured with eight statements. To be clear, the scale does not explicitly measure one’s use of power but rather the confidence that one has it and can use it.

With three, seven-point Likert-type items, this scale measures the leadership of a particular company's chief executive office, particularly as it pertains to managing the development of innovative products. 

The effectiveness and leadership of a state governor is measured using three, seven-point Likert-type items. 

The degree to which a person views a certain brand as being a leader and innovative is measured in this scale with three, nine-point unipolar items.

Three, seven-point unipolar items are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a person is characterized by a personality-type factor having to do with productivity and intelligence.

Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a brand is viewed as being a leading brand among those available in the market.

This Likert-type scale measures the perception of one's self as a leader and having confidence. A four-item version of this scale was used by Davis and Rubin (1983) and referred to as self-confidence/leadership. A shorter, three-item version was utilized by Lumpkin and Hunt (1989).

A consumer's tendency to be a good source of price information for other consumers is measured with seven Likert-type items.  The scale measures a general tendency rather than the likelihood that the behavior only occurs for any particular product category. The scale is sometimes referred to as price mavenism.

Six, seven-point Likert-type items measure a consumer's belief that other consumers come to him or her for information about products to buy and are influenced by the information received. The scale is purposefully constructed to be amenable for adaptation to a variety of product categories but is not a generalized opinion leadership scale. The authors (Flynn, Goldsmith, and Eastman 1996) believed the construct to be monomorphic, such that opinion leadership in technologically advanced cultures tends to focus on one topical area rather than many (polymorphic).