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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

lifestyle

Several statements with a Likert-type response format are used to measure a person's lack of free time for him/herself each day. This was referred to as "My Time Oriented" by Lumpkin (1985).

The scale measures a person's level of satisfaction with life including his/her accomplishments using a set of evoked standards (relatives, friends). The scale has also been referred to as congruity life satisfaction (Meadow et al. 1992).

The scale has been used in various forms to measure a person's tendency to provide information to others. Although it has been referred to as a measure of opinion leadership in all of the studies, an examination of the items suggests that it might be more accurate to think of it in more limited terms, e.g., the degree to which one provides information to others. Even if a person talks about a topic a lot that does not necessarily mean that the information is believed and acted upon (persuasion). These activities are critical indicators that one is, indeed, leading the opinions of others yet it is weak or missing from this scale.

The scale measures what time during the week a parent reports typically watching TV with his/her children. The version by Carlson and Grossbart (1988) had an extra dimension intended to capture the importance of coviewing.

The scale is composed of nine, seven-point Likert-type items measuring a person's attitude toward male homosexuality, with the emphasis on the morality of that lifestyle.

Four, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a consumer views the use of some focal brand as more consistent with his or her self-image than some referent brand. The similarity between a consumer's self-concept and the image held of the focal brand is the focus of the scale.

The scale is composed of Likert-type statements measuring the degree to which a consumer views a specified behavior to be consistent with his or her self-image in a specified situation. The similarity between a consumer's self-concept and the image held of the product/behavior is the focus of the measure. Two versions of the scale used three items and five-point response formats whereas another version used five items and a seven-point response scale.

A person's concern for the environment and willingness to work toward its protection are measured in this scale using four Likert-type items.

Six, five-point statements are used to measure a person's perceived likelihood of using a specified credit card. The scale also appears to capture the level of involvement the person wants to have with the image or cause linked with the card and its sponsoring organization. The organization studied by Sirgy and colleagues (1997) was the Sierra Club and the cause was environmentalism.

A five-item scale is used to measure the degree to which Spanish is the predominant language used by a person.