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Scale Reviews

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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


The scales grouped in this review consist of multiple bi-polar adjectives presumed to measure a consumer’s overall evaluation of a product or brand. The various versions of the scale are similar in that the items themselves are not specific to any particular product or brand although certain adjectives may not be appropriate in all cases. Some researchers have referred to their measures by other names such as product evaluation (e.g., Muthukrishnan and Ramaswami 1999; Gürhan-Canli and Batra 2004) and product utility (Thompson et al. 2005). 

Scales made from these items have also been used with objects other than typical “products.”  In Lane (2000), a version of this scale was used as an evaluation of a hypothetical brand extension. Stafford and Day (1995) measured attitudes toward a service rather than a good. Given the directions used by Gürhan-Canli and Maheswaran (2000), their scale appeared to be a country-of-origin evaluation of a class of products. One of the three uses of the scale by Ruth and Simonin (2003) was with an event (parade) sponsored by two companies. Attitude toward a hotel chain was measured by Posavac et al. (2004).