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Scale Reviews

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I have relied on the Marketing Scales Handbooks over several years in academic and industry roles and look forward to using the newest edition. A seven on a seven-point satisfaction scale!
Tom Prinsen, Ph.D.
Global Manager Market Intelligence, Biomet Orthope


Four sets of bi-polar adjectives are used to assess a person's opinion of the actor or spokesperson featured in an advertisement with an emphasis on how likeable the person appears to be.

The scales grouped in this review consist of multiple bi-polar adjectives presumed to measure a consumer’s overall evaluation of a product or brand. The various versions of the scale are similar in that the items themselves are not specific to any particular product or brand although certain adjectives may not be appropriate in all cases. Some researchers have referred to their measures by other names such as product evaluation (e.g., Muthukrishnan and Ramaswami 1999; Gürhan-Canli and Batra 2004) and product utility (Thompson et al. 2005). 

Scales made from these items have also been used with objects other than typical “products.”  In Lane (2000), a version of this scale was used as an evaluation of a hypothetical brand extension. Stafford and Day (1995) measured attitudes toward a service rather than a good. Given the directions used by Gürhan-Canli and Maheswaran (2000), their scale appeared to be a country-of-origin evaluation of a class of products. One of the three uses of the scale by Ruth and Simonin (2003) was with an event (parade) sponsored by two companies. Attitude toward a hotel chain was measured by Posavac et al. (2004).

Four, five-point Likert-type statements are used to assess a person's attitude about a product, most likely a specified brand, that was featured in an advertisement.

A consumer's attitude toward a certain product is assessed with three, five-point Likert-type statements. The emphasis of the scale is on the affective component of one's an attitude. The scale was referred to as owner-product relationship by McAlexander, Schouten, and Koenig (2002).

How much a person likes a specified object is measured with these semantic-differential scales. Even though these items have been used many times with reference to ads and products, the uses reviewed here have to do with other types of applications. The scale has been used with a variety of objects such as a written editorial (Ahluwalia and Burnkrant 2004), a word (Allen and Janiszewski 1989), a radio program (Lord, Lee, and Sauer 1994), slogans (Luna, Lerman, and Peracchio 2005), scents (Morrin and Ratneshwar 2003), a magazine (Putrevu 2004), a film (Schlosser 2005), and plant biotechnology (Sinclair and Irani 2005).

The scale is composed of six statements attempting to assess a consumer's attitude toward a brand and the category of products it represents.

The scale attempts to assess the appeal and suitability of a certain brand name for a product and is composed of four, nine-point semantic differentials.

The scale is composed of four descriptors with a seven-point Likert-type response format and is used to measure the extent to which a person perceives an advertisement to be attractive and enjoyable.

The various collections of bi-polar adjectives reviewed here are presumed to measure a person’s global evaluation of an advertisement.  Commonly symbolized by Aad, the scales tend to be applicable to most any ad.  Seven-point scales seem to be the most popular response format but five- and nine-point scales have been used as well.

The scales grouped in this review consist of bi-polar adjectives presumed to measure the affective component of a person's attitude toward a particular advertisement as opposed to the cognitive component.