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Testimonial

I have relied on the Marketing Scales Handbooks over several years in academic and industry roles and look forward to using the newest edition. A seven on a seven-point satisfaction scale!
Tom Prinsen, Ph.D.
Global Manager Market Intelligence, Biomet Orthope

likeability

The scale has three, seven point Likert-type items and measures a shopper's attitude about the appeal of the background music played in a store. Although the scale was described as measuring "the store ambient factor" in a couple of studies (Baker, Grewal, and Parasuraman 1994; Baker, Levy, and Grewal 1992), it is clear from an examination of the items that only the music aspect of the retail atmosphere is being assessed.

The full version of the scale is composed of ten item, five point items and measure the degree of positive affect one has toward some specified stimulus. As noted below, several versions of the scale were created and tested which vary in their temporal instructions. Therefore, the items can be used to measure one's mood state at a particular point in time or, at the other extreme, reference to a year's time may be used as something more like a trait measure of affect. Depending upon the set of items used it may be more accurate to describe a scale as measuring arousal rather than affect per se.

A four item variation of the scale was used by Babin, Boles, and Darden (1995) and was referred to as interest. The three item subset used by Hung (2001) was referred to as arousal. Richins' (1997) version of the scale was composed of three, four-point items and was intended to capture the level of excitement a person felt during a consumption experience. Similarly, Beatty and Ferrell (1998) were interested in the level of positive affect felt during a particular shopping trip and used a four item, seven-point version of the scale.

A four-item, seven-point scale is used to assess a person's attitude toward some specific advertisement. Unlike the more popular approach that depends primarily on simple bi-polar adjectives, this scale is composed of sets of brief, opposing, complete sentences.

Three Likert-type statements are used to measure the extent to which a person believes that advertising is annoying. The items are general enough so that they can refer advertising in general or to advertising in a specific medium. The scale was not, however, developed for use with a specific ad.

The scale is composed of three Likert-type statements measuring the degree to which a person believes that advertising in general is entertaining. The items are general enough so that they can refer advertising in general or to advertising in a specific medium. The scale was not, however, developed for use with a specific ad.

Seven, seven-point bi-polar adjectives are used to assess a person's evaluation of some environmental stimulus with an emphasis on affective descriptors. As used by Mattila and Wirtz (2001), the stimulus was a store's atmosphere and was called store environment.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items intended to measure a person's attitude about some specified sporting activity with an emphasis on how adventurous it is.

Three statements are used to measure a consumer's general attitude about a specific sales promotion device he/she is familiar with. 

A seven-item, seven-point scale is used to assess a person's attitude toward some specific product or brand. Unlike the more popular approach that depends simply on bi-polar adjectives, this scale is composed of sets of brief, opposing, complete sentences.

The twelve item scale is intended to measure a person's attitude toward a digital camera he/she has been exposed to with an emphasis on behavioral aspects of the attitude, i.e., the extent to which the camera would be used. The measure was called product preference.