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Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation

local

The scale is composed of four Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a person identifies mostly with the people, traditions, and events in his/her local community.

Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a person's relative attitude toward two versions of a product that differ in their targets: one made for a global market and the other made for the local market.

This scale uses three, seven-point items to measure the extent to which a person either views him/herself as a "citizen" of the world or as a local "citizen."

Ten, seven-point items are used to measure the extent to which a person identifies with people in his/her local community.

This is a Likert-type scale that measures a consumer's desire to loyally shop in the local community. The measure was called general retail patronage loyalty by Hozier and Stem (1985) and loyalty to local merchants by Noble, Griffith, and Adjei (2006).

This is a three-item, six-point, Likert-type scale that assesses a consumer's degree of loyalty toward local retailers. It was referred to as loyalty to local merchants by Hawes and Lumpkin (1984).

This five-item, six-point, Likert-type scale measures a consumer's attitude about shopping at local stores. It was referred to as negative attitude toward local shopping by Hawes and Lumpkin (1984) because items were scored such that higher scores implied more negative attitudes.