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luxuries

With three, seven-point semantic-differentials, this scale measures the extent to which a consumer believes a product to be either a luxury brand (at one end) or a “value” brand (at the other end).

The degree to which luxury brands are viewed as expressing something about one's self (beliefs, attitudes, values) is measured with this scale using four, seven-point Likert-type items.

Four, seven-point items are used to measure the degree to which luxury brands are viewed as facilitating self-expression and helping to project a particular image in social settings.

Seven, seven-point items are used to measure the expected likelihood that a certain hotel chain has several particular benefits characteristic of a higher quality establishment.

The level of pleasure a person thinks he/she would receive from eating a particular food item is measured with three, five point Likert-type items. Given the phrasing of item #2, the food is a treat rather than something common. In the study by Naylor et al. (2008), participants responded to this scale with respect to a chocolate featured in an advertisement by a chocolatier.

The scale is composed of four, five point Likert-type items that are intended to measure the degree to which a person attributes social meaning to a recent experience at a resort/spa.

The four, seven-point items in this scale measure the degree to which a person describes an object such as a product or person as having the quality of elegance, beauty, and status. The scale was called perceptions of luxury index by Hagtvedt and Patrick (2008).

This scale has six, six-point Likert-type items that are intended to measure the degree to which a person believes that a product is either a "luxury" or a "necessity" for the majority of people.