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Bob Moritz
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation

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Using six, five-point Likert-type items, the scale measures a person’s belief that an organization to which he/she belongs is competent and caring about its members.

The extent to which a person feels connected to and part of a specified group of people is measured with twelve, seven-point Likert-type items.

Three, seven-point items are used to measure the extent to which a person believes a certain social group is composed of several subgroups.

The scale is composed of four, nine-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a person believes him/herself to be a valuable, contributing member of a specified reference group. Shang, Reed, and Croson (2008) called their version of the scale identity esteem.

Three, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a person's attitude toward a business or organization, with an emphasis on the pride felt from being associated with it. The entity examined in the study by Woo, Fock, and Hui (2006) was a major university in Hong Kong.

Three items are used to measure the degree to which a person views him/herself as belonging to a specified group.

The degree to which a person believes that he/she belongs to a particular group of people is measured with three Likert-type statements.  To the extent that the person views him/herself as being part of the group and refers to it in determining attitudes and behaviors then it is a reference group.

A Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person views an organization of which he or she is a member as having a positive reputation in the community. The organization studied by Bhattacharya, Rao, and Glynn (1995) was an art museum while Arnett, German, and Hunt (2003) studied a university.

The scale is composed of three, ten-point Likert-type statements that measure the commitment a person has to being a member of a community of brand users and his/her intention to continue being a member.

Five, ten-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a person views him/herself as a member of a community of brand users.