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Saint Xavier University, Chicago


The degree to which a customer believes a service provider is the best is because it understands his/her needs better than the others.  The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items.

A person’s motivation to increase his/her social status is measured in this scale with four, seven-point Likert-like items.

Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person believes a particular advertisement addressed concerns about a product that was important to him/her.

The degree to which a person believes that his/her resources are insufficient and that more are needed is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.  The items themselves are rather general.  Focusing participants’ attention on a particular situation and type of resource would need to be done in the context of the study or the questionnaire’s instructions.

One’s attitude about which of the two genders is needier and requires more care is measured with three, nine-point items.  The questions are phrased in terms of “boys” and “girls.”

With five, six-point Likert-type items, the scale measures the degree to which a person tends to process information such that it is conscious, intentional, analytic, and relatively affect free.

How urgent and crucial a person’s need appears to be is assessed in this scale by four phrases and a seven-point Likert-type response format.

The degree to which a customer believes a particular salesperson tried to understand his/her needs with the best of intentions is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

The severity of a country's need for help to alleviate a plight or other unfortunate condition is measured in the scale with four statements.  Because one of the items contains the term "unjust," the scale is most appropriate for use in contexts where the problem is man-made, e.g., social injustice.

The scale measures the extent to which a person feels the need to be accepted by others and to have them to turn to for help.