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Testimonial

Measuring is complex and critical for research in marketing, advertising, and consumer psychology. These books are excellent tools for researchers and professionals of those areas that need to find reliable and valid scales for their research. They have helped me save time and consider new constructs in my academic research.
Juan Fernando Tavera
University of Antioquia, COLOMBIA

opportunities

The degree to which a person believes his/her future is open with many opportunities is measured using ten, seven-point Likert-type items.

How much a person thinks about the opportunity cost of buying products in terms of foregoing the purchase of other products, is measured in this scale with three, six-point Likert-type items.

The degree to which a person believes a deal that has been offered to him/her was limited to just a few customers and not widely available to other customers is measured with four, nine-point semantic differentials.

Three, nine-point items are used to measure a person's motivation to pursue a limited option with greater determination than he/she otherwise would have.

The scale is composed of three, five-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a consumer wishes that he/she could stock up on more grocery item specials but is not able to because of limitations in storage space and money. Talukdar (2008) referred to the scale as perceived inventory holding cost.