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Testimonial

I have relied on the Marketing Scales Handbooks over several years in academic and industry roles and look forward to using the newest edition. A seven on a seven-point satisfaction scale!
Tom Prinsen, Ph.D.
Global Manager Market Intelligence, Biomet Orthope

optimism

This scale has six, seven-point Likert-type items that measure a person’s belief that people can make a new beginning with hope of a better life, despite his/her past or present circumstances.

The degree to which a person has positive expectations about his/her future is measured with six, seven-point Likert-type items.

This scale has four, seven-point Likert-type items that measure a person’s expectation that both his/her income and saving money will be better in the future compared to the present.

A person’s general level of trust across a variety of people and situations is measured with 25, five-point Likert-type items.  To be clear, the scale does not measure one’s trust of a particular person or those playing a specific role but rather the tendency to trust others and be optimistic about their intentions.

Seven, seven-point Likert-type items measure a person’s general and enduring tendency to experience feelings that are expressed in terms of optimism about the future.

The degree to which a person believes his/her future is open with many opportunities is measured using ten, seven-point Likert-type items.

A person's ability to remain hopeful and motivated to achieve goals despite adversity is measured in this scale with six, seven-point Likert-type items.  The scale was called positive utilization of emotions by Taute, McQuitty, and Sautter (2011).

This scale uses four, five-point Likert-type items to measure the degree to which a person has the ability to maintain a positive mood and to return to it if a bad mood is experienced.

The scale measures the degree to which a person has positive expectations for his/her future.  Two versions of the scale are described: one with three, seven-point Likert items and another with five, five-point Likert items.

The three items in this scale are intended to capture the level of hopeful-type feelings a person is experiencing (or experienced during a certain event).