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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam


The degree to which a person has positive expectations about his/her future is measured with six, seven-point Likert-type items.

This scale has four, seven-point Likert-type items that measure a person’s expectation that both his/her income and saving money will be better in the future compared to the present.

A person’s general level of trust across a variety of people and situations is measured with 25, five-point Likert-type items.  To be clear, the scale does not measure one’s trust of a particular person or those playing a specific role but rather the tendency to trust others and be optimistic about their intentions.

Seven, seven-point Likert-type items measure a person’s general and enduring tendency to experience feelings that are expressed in terms of optimism about the future.

The degree to which a person believes his/her future is open with many opportunities is measured using ten, seven-point Likert-type items.

A person's ability to remain hopeful and motivated to achieve goals despite adversity is measured in this scale with six, seven-point Likert-type items.  The scale was called positive utilization of emotions by Taute, McQuitty, and Sautter (2011).

This scale uses four, five-point Likert-type items to measure the degree to which a person has the ability to maintain a positive mood and to return to it if a bad mood is experienced.

The scale measures the degree to which a person has positive expectations for his/her future.  Two versions of the scale are described: one with three, seven-point Likert items and another with five, five-point Likert items.

The three items in this scale are intended to capture the level of hopeful-type feelings a person is experiencing (or experienced during a certain event).

Three, seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure how a person feels at some particular point in time. Although the scale might be considered a measure of affect in a general sense, it should not be used to measure the affective component of an attitude because there is no object to which to evaluate apart from one's feelings (e.g., an advertisement, a product, a company).